All humans have traits and experiences that can both protect us and make us vulnerable. The interaction of these traits is reflected in our resilience and resistance.

The incident and its surrounding circumstances are central. Degree of exposure to danger and closeness to the event will influence the intensity of reactions. The affected person’s actions during the event are also important. Contributing to the safety of yourself or others, or utilising the body’s crisis activation in a constructive way can have a positive effect.

Those who experience deep helplessness or inability to act can have a more difficult healing process.

Experiences following the incident may also affect the recovery process.